Chapter 13

Hardyman Family 

The Hardyman family is connected to the Poythress family by the marriage of a daughter (unknown) of John Hardyman to Joshua Poythress [Chapter 12] about 1720 in Prince George County, Virginia. The Poythress family is thought to be connected to the Wall family [Chapter 11] by the marriage of Ann Poythress to John Wall about 1730-1740 in Virginia. The Wall family is connected to the Covington family through the marriage of Nancy Wall to John Covington [See discussion of this confusing "fact" in the Covington family history, Chapter 10] on 26 July 1770. as his second wife. The Covington family is then connected to the Gathings family through the marriage of Martha Wall Covington to James J. Gathings on 5 April 1838. Their daughters, Mattie (Martha Wall Texanna) and Emma Davis Gathings, both married James McCown. 

There are several genealogical articles on our first Hardyman ancestor, Colonel John Hardyman, which will be first presented below, but none of these, by themselves, make the connection we need to the Poythress family . The more definitive Hardyman-Poythress connection is provided in a history of the Epes family titled Ancestors and Descendants of Francis Epes I of Virginia. I will provide the less complete histories first "for the record," and will then reconstruct the complete Hardyman history based upon the Epes family information. 

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"John Hardyman #1, immigrant, of Charles City County on the south side of the James River (later Prince George County), died 18 September 1711. He was a Lieutenant Colonel in the Virginia Militia, and a Justice for Charles City County. He married Mary Epes [Chapter 14] (who died after 1726), daughter of Francis Epes Jr. and Elizabeth Worsham [Book 2]. Issue: John Hardyman Jr., Francis Hardyman, James Hardyman and Littlebury Hardyman."

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"The first mention that occurs of this family is in the Isle of Wight county records: John Hardiman, of Bristol, gave a power of attorney to Thomas Moore, of Pagan Creek, to receive goods from Arthur Skinner, Giles Driver and Joseph Whitson. 29 June 1667.

"In 1699 and 1702, John Hardiman was one of the justices of Charles City County, though he resided in that part made in 1702 into Prince George. He had the military title of lieutenant-colonel. He died before 1713, as there is a deed recorded in Surry County from John Hardyman, his administrator and son and heir. He married, before 1685, Mary, daughter of Col. Francis Epes, of Henrico. He had issue: John; Francis; James, justice of Charles City County, in 1714; Littlebury, who made his will in Prince George County 17 September 1726, naming his brother William and wife Jude, and mentioning but not naming his ‘brothers and sisters,’ and ‘mother;’ William.

"It is not proved positively that any but John was a son of Col. Hardyman, but the circumstantial evidence is very strong. Thus Col. Hardyman is the only one of the name that lived in Prince George in the generation preceding. In 1716, John Hardyman exhibited in court an account of ‘Col. John Hardyman’s estate,’ and among the entries was ‘judgment to pay Major Charles Goodrich for goods my mother let the children have.’ Again, the name ‘Littlebury’ was a family name of Col. Hardyman’s wife’s family, the Eppeses." 

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"John Hardyman was a gentleman justice by 1699, and signed the oath of loyalty to King William III as a justice this March day in 1701/2.

"In 1704, Hardyman owned 872 acres in that part of Charles City County, south of the James River, which the Council decided, in August 1702, should become Prince George in 1703.

"Before 1785, John Hardyman had married Mary Epes, the full sister of Littlebury Epes,and half sister of Francis Epes, the children of Francis Epes, who also lived on the south side of the James River.

"Lieutenant Colonel Hardyman was one of the justices taking testimony about the course of the Nottoway River in 1707, and he had been chosen a burgess for Prince George County on August the 8th 1710, but he only served one year. On September the 17th 1711, William Byrd wrote in his diary ‘This day Col. Hardyman was giving a glyster to his race horse and he kicked him on the breast that he died in about 18 hours without leaving a will.’

"The estate account presented by John Hardyman, junior at the July 1716 Prince George County court showed a credit of over £72 sterling, mostly ‘money due in England,’ and a debit of £71 owed in Virginia. The largest debit item was £17-9-1 sterling due to Major Charles Goodrich ‘for goods my mother (Mary Epes Hardyman) let the children have.’

"Two of John Hardyman’s sons, John, junior and Francis Hardyman married Henrietta Maria and Sarah Taylor, two of the three daughters of John Taylor, but not until after Taylor died in 1707. Only Taylor’s daughter Elizabeth was married to Henry Duke junior then.

"From William Byrd’s Diary: ‘August the 16th 1709 — one of Mrs. (John) Taylor’s daughters (Henrietta Maria) was married to Mr. John Hardyman.’ Further diary entries note that Sarah Taylor visited at Westover every few months after her sister’s wedding, and did not marry Francis Hardyman until after April the 29th 1711.

"However, after Francis Hardyman and Sarah Taylor were married, they would live on the north side of James River in Westover Parish in Charles City County, while John Hardyman, junior and his wife Henrietta Maria would be ‘of the parish of Martin’s Brandon’ in Prince George County.

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  Turning now to our more definitive, and complete, information, we learn:

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"Mary Epes, born about 1666, married (1) John Hardyman. On 1 August 1685, on the petition of ‘Jno. Hardiman who marryed Mary, one of the Orphs of Coll. Fra: Epes, dec’d,’ it was ordered Mr. Francis Epes, late guardian of Mary, deliver her estate to John Hardyman. 

[Comment: See Appendix 3 for an interesting and very relevant history of the formation of Prince George County, which mentions many of the place-names in these articles as well as a number of the families named.]

"John Hardyman arrived in Virginia before 1680 when he was named as a headright in a patent granted to Capt. William Randolph, Mr. Francis Epps and Mr. Joseph Royall. In 1684 he was described as a merchant of James River in Virginia and on 3 March 1690/1 he purchased a mill from John Taylor. By 28 April 1691 he had acquired land in Mason’s Neck in Prince George County. He was appointed to take the list of tithables in the upper precincts of Westover Parish on 23 May 1689 and was appointed surveyor the highways in the precinct formerly called Jordans on 3 August 1691. He was a lieutenant colonel of militia and by 1699 a justice of Charles City County. With Richard Bland, John Taylor and John Hamlin he was co-owner of the brigantine Virgin of Virginia of forty tons which was built in Virginia in 1698. In 1704 he owned 872 acres in Prince George County. On 21 October 1707 Col. John Hardyman was appointed one of a six member commission to examine ancient inhabitants of Prince George, Surry, Isle of Wight and Nansemond counties and ancient Nottoway, Meherrin and Nansemond Indians concerning the boundary between Virginia and North Carolina. He was elected a Burgess on 8 August 1710 and served until his death.

[Comment: According to Sandra Ellerbe Krutilek of Pacific Palisades, California, John Hardyman was also owner or part-owner of the ship Henrietta.]

"He died 18 September 1711 in Prince George County, having been kicked in the breast by his race horse some 18 hours before. He did not leave a will but on 8 May 1712 the inventory of the estate of Col. John Hardyman listed twelve slaves as the widow’s dower, twenty-two other Negroes, and property at the home house, the mill and the high hills. On 12 July 1716 his son John as administrator of his father John Hardyman returned a further account of the estate.

"By 10 December 1712 Mary had married (2) Major Charles Goodrich. On that date they conveyed to John Hardyman, her son and heir, a tract at the head of Powell’s Creek and the mill and mill dam thereon.

"Charles Goodrich patented 550 acres in Westover Parish on the south side of James River on 20 April 1687 and as Captain Charles Goodrich was sheriff of Charles City County in 1687-90. Beginning in 1690 he operated a ferry across James River and served as justice. He represented Charles City County in the House of Burgesses from 1696 until 1698. By 1699 he had attained the military rank of major and on 25 April 1702 was again appointed sheriff of Charles City County. He entered 2000 acres on the south side of Blackwater on 21 September 1702 and in 1704 was charged with quit rents on 800 acres in Prince George County where he was named first in a list of justices in 1714. His will, dated 6 December 1725 and proved 14 June 1726, did not mention his wife but named children of his previous marriage.

"Mary (Epes) Hardyman Goodrich’s son Littlebury mentioned her in his will, September 1726.

"Issue: (by 1) [Hardyman]

"1 John Hardyman; married Henrietta Maria Taylor

"John Hardyman, known as John Hardyman Jr., died 1738; he married Henrietta Maria Taylor who died 1707, the daughter of John Taylor. Issue: 1) Henrietta Maria Hardyman, who d. ca 1772 and married Edmund Epes, son of Littlebury Epes and ____ Llewellyn; 2) William Hardyman married ca 1750 Angelica Epes, daughter of Llewellyn Epes and Angelica Gray; 3) Ann Hardyman, who as an orphan chose Edmund Epes as her guardian (Court Record, March 30, 1738)."

"John Hardyman was born about 1686, and married, 16 August 1709, Henrietta Maria Taylor, daughter of Capt. John Taylor, who left a will dated 5 April 1707, and his wife Henrietta Maria. John Hardyman of Martin’s Brandon Parish, Prince George County, and Henrietta Maria, his wife, sold to Joshua Poythress [Chapter 12] 300 acres of land known a Flower de Hundred, 150 acres of which was devised to Henrietta Maria by the will of her father John Taylor, dated 5 April 1701, who devised the other 150 acres to his daughter Sarah, now wife of Francis Hardyman, which was then sold to John Hardyman.

"He was a justice of Prince George County by May 1715, was churchwarden of Westover Parish in November 1719, and was appointed sheriff 4 May 1720. On 6 May 1721 the Virginia Council removed him from office as a justice of Prince George County, because he had heard the Reverend James Robertson utter scandalous words against King George I and ‘contrary to the duty of his office, did for the space of seven months conceal the said Scandalous words.’

"He died before March 1737/8 when an extant Prince George County Order Book begins and left a will which is now lost. A suit in 1742 by Benjamin Harrison, Gent., against Edmund Eppes, William Kennon, William Hardyman and Ann Hardyman states that William Kennon and Richard Bland were executors of John Hardyman and supplies the names of his heirs."

"2 Francis Hardyman; married (1) Sarah Taylor, (2) Jane (Featherstone) Cross

"Francis Hardyman was a justice of Charles City County in 1737. He and his elder brother John, as appears by a deed in Prince George, married two sisters, Sarah and Henrietta Maria Taylor, daughters of Capt. John Taylor, clerk in 1699 of Charles City County, and who died in 1707. Francis Hardyman married, secondly, Jane, widow of John Cross. On 11 August 1741, the will of Francis Hardyman was presented in Charles City court for probate by two of the executors, Richard Kennon and David Stokes…"

"Francis Hardyman was born about 1688. He married (1), by March 1720, Sarah Taylor, daughter of Capt. John Taylor and sister of Henrietta Maria Taylor, wife of his brother John Hardyman, and (2), after March 1731, Jane (Featherstone) Cross, widow of John Cross, who died in Charles City County in 1731, and sister of William Featherstone of Prince George County.

"He represented Charles City County in the House of Burgesses, 1718, was a justice of Charles City County as early as 1726, and was appointed sheriff on 3 May 1726 and again on 21 April 1727. William Byrd recorded on 23 July 1741: ‘Mrs. Duke came and told us that Frank Hardyman was dead.’ He left a will dated 9 November 1738 which was presented in court by Richard Kennon and David Stokes, two of the executors, in August 1741. In January 1741/2 Jane Hardyman was appointed guardian of her two children, James and Martha Hardyman. She was still alive in July 1743 when her suit against her step-son Francis Hardyman concerning her part of land allotted to her by the will of her husband was continued but died by August 1743 when Richard Kennon and David Stokes petitioned for administration of her estate.

"3 Littlebury Hardyman; b. about 1700, was a resident of Martin’s Brandon Parish, Prince George County, on 13 November 1722 when John and Henrietta Maria Hardyman conveyed to him 261 acres on Harris’ Run, married Judith ____ and left will 19 September 1726 - 8 November 1726, which named his wife Jude executrix, left his wearing apparel to his brother William Hardyman, and gave one shilling apiece to each of his brothers and sisters, but did not name them. Edmund Irby, Sr. and Jr., were witnesses to the will. Judith Hardyman apparently moved to New Kent County where in 1728 and 1729 two Negroes belonging to her were baptized.

"4 William Hardyman. As a resident of Martin’s Brandon Parish, Prince George County, he was deeded 322 acres on Blackwater Swamp by John and Henrietta Maria Hardyman on 13 November 1722, but sold the tract on 8 April 1723, no wife then relinquishing right of dower."

"The will of Littlebury Hardyman mentions sisters but surviving records do not identify the daughters born to John and Mary (Epes) Hardyman. The use of both names Littlebury and Hardyman in the family of Mary, wife first of John Poythress and then of John Abbington and in the Irby family of Charles City County, of the name Littlebury in the family of Joshua Poythress, and of the given name Henrietta Maria in the Irby family of Amelia County suggests that these families may have Epes-Hardyman descent, most likely as descendants of Mary (Epes) Hardyman Goodrich.

  1. Mary Hardyman, m.(?) (1) John Poythress [Chapter 12], (2) John Abbington bef. 8 Feb 1725/6
  2. _____ Hardyman; m. Joshua Poythress [Chapter 12]

[Comment: The author theorizes at one point that this daughter of John Hardyman married John Poythress, the cousin of Joshua Poythress, the other leading candidate for the father of Ann Poythress. See the comment regarding this supposition in the Poythress family history, Chapter 12. See comment below.]

7. _____ Hardyman; m.(?) William Irby, Jr.

8. Susannah Hardyman; d. between 5 Aug 1764 (will dated) and 26 Feb 1767 (will proved); m.? Charles Irby

[Comment: The strength of the author’s "evidence" that Susannah Hardyman married Charles Irby is based solely on the fact that Charles Irby was "chosen guardian by William Poythress, orphan of John Poythress of Jordans on 13 March 1738/9 following William’s complaint about ill usage by Robert Empson to whom he had been apprenticed." This probably does indicate that Charles Irby was a relative of William Poythress, but does not provide sufficient evidence for me to believe that this constituted a Hardyman-Poythress-Irby connection. This logic is undoubtedly an extension of the theory that the second daughter of John Hardyman married John Poythress instead of Joshua Poythress. See comment above.]

9. Lucy Hardyman

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he second daughter (#6 above) of John and Mary Epes Hardyman married either John Poythress or Joshua Poythress [Chapter 12]. At this time, I believe that she married Joshua Poythress, but I am sufficiently in doubt that I have documented both lineages in the Poythress family history. 

[For a continuation of the Hardyman family lineage, see the Poythress family history, Chapter 12.]

 

Notes & References

McSwain, Eleanor Pratt Covington, My Folk, p. 60.

White, Eurie Covington, Covington Cousins, p. 35.

Boddie, Mrs. John Bennett, Historical Southern Families, p. 83.

Parks, Gary, Genealogies of Virginia Families (William and Mary College Quarterly Historical Magazine), p. 862.

"See John Hamlin" — Lawrence-Dow, Elizabeth, Autographs 1701/2 Charles City/Prince George and Surry Counties, p. 38.

"Epes Fam. Asso. Genealogist" — Lawrence-Dow, Elizabeth, Autographs 1701/2 Charles City/Prince George and Surry Counties, p. 38.

"See Epes" — Lawrence-Dow, Elizabeth, Autographs 1701/2 Charles City/Prince George and Surry Counties, p. 38.

"Va. Hist. Soc. Lee Papers Missl 151 f 15-22" — Lawrence-Dow, Elizabeth, Autographs 1701/2 Charles City/Prince George and Surry Counties, p. 38.

"Wm. Byrd’s Diary 1709-1712, p. 214-5, and 407" " — Lawrence-Dow, Elizabeth, Autographs 1701/2 Charles City/Prince George and Surry Counties, p. 38.

"Pr. Geo. Co. rec. 1713-1728, p. 115" " — Lawrence-Dow, Elizabeth, Autographs 1701/2 Charles City/Prince George and Surry Counties, p. 39

"John Taylor’s Will — Va. His. Soc." " — Lawrence-Dow, Elizabeth, Autographs 1701/2 Charles City/Prince George and Surry Counties, p. 39

"Byrd’s Diary, p. 71" " — Lawrence-Dow, Elizabeth, Autographs 1701/2 Charles City/Prince George and Surry Counties, p. 39

"Ibid., pgs. 180, 220, 303, 328-9, 337" " — Lawrence-Dow, Elizabeth, Autographs 1701/2 Charles City/Prince George and Surry Counties, p. 39

"Pr. Geo. Co. rec. 1713-1728, p. 511" " — Lawrence-Dow, Elizabeth, Autographs 1701/2 Charles City/Prince George and Surry Counties, p. 39

"Estimated from the ages of her brothers Francis and William and from her marriage" — Dorman, John Frederick, Ancestors and Descendants of Francis Epes I of Virginia, p. 124.

"Henrico Co. Order Bk. 1678-93, p. 192" — Dorman, John Frederick, Ancestors and Descendants of Francis Epes I of Virginia, p. 124.

"Patent Bk. 7, p. 24" — Dorman, John Frederick, Ancestors and Descendants of Francis Epes I of Virginia, p. 124.

"Agreement between William Paggon, merchant, and John Hardiman, Aubrey MSS 4, Bodleian Library, Oxford University, Virginia Colonial Records Project microfilm 636. Details are not filled in and the document is unsigned." — Dorman, John Frederick, Ancestors and Descendants of Francis Epes I of Virginia, p. 124.

"Prince George Co. Wills & Deeds 1713-28, p. 495, sale by John Hardyman, Jr., to Peter Poythress, 10 Oct 1721, of Hardyman’s Lower Mill on Powell’s Creek with 100 acres. He proved rights to an additional 2450 acres on 13 April 1693 (Charles City Co. Order Bk. 1687-95, p. 451) but no patent for this acreage is of record. Although presented by the grand jury on 3 Aug 1692 for default of weights and scales at his mill, he was acquitted, ‘having always stylyards there’ (ibid., p 482)." — Dorman, John Frederick, Ancestors and Descendants of Francis Epes I of Virginia, p. 124.

"Patent Bk. 8, p. 593, patent of Richard Bland" — Dorman, John Frederick, Ancestors and Descendants of Francis Epes I of Virginia, p. 124.

"Charles City Co. Order Bk. 1687-95, pp. 216, 355" — Dorman, John Frederick, Ancestors and Descendants of Francis Epes I of Virginia, p. 124.

"des Cognets, op. Cit., pp. 9, 11" — Dorman, John Frederick, Ancestors and Descendants of Francis Epes I of Virginia, p. 124.

"Ibid., pp. 281, 285, 289. The inventory of his estate listed a ship Henrietta which was sold for £100 (Prince George Co. Wills & Deeds 1710-1713, p. 164)" — Dorman, John Frederick, Ancestors and Descendants of Francis Epes I of Virginia, p. 124.

"The Virginia Magazine of History and Biography, XXVIII, p. 332" — Dorman, John Frederick, Ancestors and Descendants of Francis Epes I of Virginia, p. 124.

"Executive Journals of the Council of Colonial Virginia, III, p. 155" — Dorman, John Frederick, Ancestors and Descendants of Francis Epes I of Virginia, pp. 124-125.

"Wright and Tinling, op. cit., p. 215; Leonard, op. cit., p. 65" — Dorman, John Frederick, Ancestors and Descendants of Francis Epes I of Virginia, p. 125.

Information on Col. John Hardyman Sr. Family Group Sheet provided by Sandra Ellerbe Krutilek of Pacific Palisades, Calif, in private correspondence dated 14 December 1995.

"Wright and Tinling, op. cit., pp. 407-408" — Dorman, John Frederick, Ancestors and Descendants of Francis Epes I of Virginia, p. 125.

"Prince George Co. Wills & Deeds 1710-1713, pp. 115-21. The widow’s dower slaves were valued at £218, the other Negroes at £436, and the remaining property at £845.12.0" — Dorman, John Frederick, Ancestors and Descendants of Francis Epes I of Virginia, p. 125.

"Prince George Co. Order Bk. 1714-1720, p. 71; Wills & Deeds 1713-28, p. 115" — Dorman, John Frederick, Ancestors and Descendants of Francis Epes I of Virginia, p. 125.

"Prince George Co., Wills & Deeds 1710-13, pp. 190-91" — Dorman, John Frederick, Ancestors and Descendants of Francis Epes I of Virginia, p. 125.

"Patent Bk. 7, p. 553. This land was later patented by John Hamlyn, being described as deserted by Charles Goodrich (Patent Bk. 9, p. 656)" — Dorman, John Frederick, Ancestors and Descendants of Francis Epes I of Virginia, p. 125.

"Charles City Co. Order Bk. 1687-95, pp. 94, 125, 217. He is mentioned as sheriff when this Order Book begins and was again sworn 4 June 1688 and 3 June 1689" — Dorman, John Frederick, Ancestors and Descendants of Francis Epes I of Virginia, p. 125.

"Charles City Co. Order Bk. 1687-95, pp. 270, 316, 371, 433, 481, 538, 595" — Dorman, John Frederick, Ancestors and Descendants of Francis Epes I of Virginia, p. 125.

"Ibid., passim" — Dorman, John Frederick, Ancestors and Descendants of Francis Epes I of Virginia, p. 125.

"Leonard, op. cit., pp. 54, 56, 58. He was chosen to succeed Henry Batte who left Virginia before the opening of the second session of the 1695-96 Assembly. His election to the 1696-97 Assembly was contested by Batte but Goodrich was declared duly elected (Journals of the House of Burgesses of Virginia, 1695 … 1702 [Richmond, 1913], p. 63)" — Dorman, John Frederick, Ancestors and Descendants of Francis Epes I of Virginia, p. 125.

"des Cognets, op. cit., p. 248" — Dorman, John Frederick, Ancestors and Descendants of Francis Epes I of Virginia, p. 125.

"Ibid, p. 2; Executive Journals of the Council of Colonial Virginia, II, p. 235" — Dorman, John Frederick, Ancestors and Descendants of Francis Epes I of Virginia, pp. 125-126.

"des Cognets, op. cit., p. 72" — Dorman, John Frederick, Ancestors and Descendants of Francis Epes I of Virginia, p. 126.

"The Virginia Magazine of History and Biography, XXVIII, p. 331" — Dorman, John Frederick, Ancestors and Descendants of Francis Epes I of Virginia, p. 126.

"des Cogent, op. cit., p. 28. He is never shown as sitting as a member of the court in Prince George Co. Order Bk. 1714-20 although on 13 March 1715/6 the sheriff was ordered to summon him and others to take the oaths as justices (ibid., p. 51)" — Dorman, John Frederick, Ancestors and Descendants of Francis Epes I of Virginia, p. 126.

"Prince George Co. Wills & Deeds 1713-28, p. 897" — Dorman, John Frederick, Ancestors and Descendants of Francis Epes I of Virginia, p. 126.

"‘Hardyman Family,’ in William and Mary College Quarterly Historical Magazine, 1st ser., XI, p. 47, also names son James, stated to have been a justice of Charles City County in 1714. ‘The present State of Virginia for the Year 1714,’ which lists the Charles City justices (des Cognets, op. cit., p. 22), does not name James Hardyman nor has any other record of him been located" — Dorman, John Frederick, Ancestors and Descendants of Francis Epes I of Virginia, p. 126.

Boddie, Mrs. John Bennett, Historical Southern Families, p. 83.

"Estimated because his parents were married by 1685" — Dorman, John Frederick, Ancestors and Descendants of Francis Epes I of Virginia, p. 187.

"Louis B. Wright and Marion Tinling, ed., The Secret Diary of William Byrd … 1709-1712 (Richmond, 1941), p. 71. The double name, rare in the 18th century, of Henrietta Maria was in honor, or at least imitation, of that of the Queen of Charles I of England." — Dorman, John Frederick, Ancestors and Descendants of Francis Epes I of Virginia, p. 187.

"Prince George Co. Wills & Deeds 1713-28, p. 826" — Dorman, John Frederick, Ancestors and Descendants of Francis Epes I of Virginia, p. 187.

"Prince George Co. Wills and Deeds 1713-1728, p. 826" — Dorman, John Frederick, Ancestors and Descendants of Francis Epes I of Virginia, p. 187.

"Prince George Co. Order Bk. 1714-20, p. 14" — Dorman, John Frederick, Ancestors and Descendants of Francis Epes I of Virginia, p. 187.

"Prince George Co. Order Bk. 1714-29, p. 296" — Dorman, John Frederick, Ancestors and Descendants of Francis Epes I of Virginia, p. 187.

"Executive Journals of the Council of Colonial Virginia, IV (Richmond, 1930), p. x1" — Dorman, John Frederick, Ancestors and Descendants of Francis Epes I of Virginia, p. 187.

"Executive Journals of the Council of Colonial Virginia, III (Richmond, 1928), p. 544" — Dorman, John Frederick, Ancestors and Descendants of Francis Epes I of Virginia, p. 187.

"Charles City Co. Order Bk. 1737-51, pp. 288, 239" — Dorman, John Frederick, Ancestors and Descendants of Francis Epes I of Virginia, p. 188-189.

Parks, Gary, Genealogies of Virginia Families (William and Mary College Quarterly Historical Magazine), p. 863.

"Estimated from the estimated birth date of his older brother John. Since John, but not Francis, is mentioned in the diary of William Byrd, 1709-12, he may have been somewhat younger." — Dorman, John Frederick, Ancestors and Descendants of Francis Epes I of Virginia, p. 188.

"Louis B. Wright and Marion Tinling, eds., William Byrd of Virginia, the London Diary (1717-1721) and Other Writings (New York, 1958), p. 385" — Dorman, John Frederick, Ancestors and Descendants of Francis Epes I of Virginia, p. 188.

"Prince George Co. Wills & Deeds 1713-1728, pp. 690, 826" — Dorman, John Frederick, Ancestors and Descendants of Francis Epes I of Virginia, p. 188.

"Charles City Co. Deeds, Wills &c 1724/5-1731, pp. 333-34, will of John Cross, dated 29 Jan 1730/1 and recorded March 1730/1; Order Bk. 1737-51, pp. 90, 431" — Dorman, John Frederick, Ancestors and Descendants of Francis Epes I of Virginia, p. 188.

"Cynthia Millier Leonard, comp., The General Assembly of Virginia, July 30, 1619 - January 11, 1978, A Bicentennial Register of Members (Richmond, 1978), p. 69" — Dorman, John Frederick, Ancestors and Descendants of Francis Epes I of Virginia, p. 189.

"Louis des Cognets, English Duplicates of Lost Virginia Records (Princeton, 1956), p. 32. A court order of Feb. 1739/40 directing the sheriff to recover a volume of Virginia laws states he was left out of the previous commissions (Charles City Co. Order Bk. 1737-51, p. 14)" — Dorman, John Frederick, Ancestors and Descendants of Francis Epes I of Virginia, p. 189.

"Executive Journals of the Council of Colonial Virginia, IV (Richmond, 1930), pp. 100, 129" — Dorman, John Frederick, Ancestors and Descendants of Francis Epes I of Virginia, p. 189.

"Maude H. Woodfin, ed., Another Secret Diary of William Byrd of Westover, 1739-1741 (Richmond, 1942), p. 176. Mrs. Duke was Elizabeth Taylor, sister of Sarah (Taylor) Hardyman." — Dorman, John Frederick, Ancestors and Descendants of Francis Epes I of Virginia, p. 189.

"‘Chesterfield County Chancery Suit,’ The Southside Virginian, VIII, pp. 11-12. This suit was brought by James Gordon against the estate Col. Richard Kennon in 1772 to secure the portions of the estates of John Cross and Jane (Featherstone) Cross Hardyman. Curiously, the bill refers to his wife as Jane (rather than Hannah), to Martha Hardyman as Mary, and states that John Cross was the second husband of Jane rather than her first husband." — Dorman, John Frederick, Ancestors and Descendants of Francis Epes I of Virginia, p. 189.

"Charles City Co. Order Bk. 1737-51, p. 174" — Dorman, John Frederick, Ancestors and Descendants of Francis Epes I of Virginia, p. 189.

"Charles City Co. Order Bk. 1737-51, p. 215" — Dorman, John Frederick, Ancestors and Descendants of Francis Epes I of Virginia, p. 189.

"Charles City Co. Order Bk. 1737-51, p. 262. In June 1743 the court ordered that part of the whole 800 acres be laid off to her (ibid., pp. 257-58)." — Dorman, John Frederick, Ancestors and Descendants of Francis Epes I of Virginia, p. 189.

"Charles City Co. Order Bk. 1737-50, p. 265. The petition was referred until the Court could be informed whether those to whom the right of administration belonged would demand it, but was granted to them in Sept. 1743 (ibid., p. 271)." — Dorman, John Frederick, Ancestors and Descendants of Francis Epes I of Virginia, p. 189.

"Prince George Co. Wills & Deeds 1713-1728, p. 564" — Dorman, John Frederick, Ancestors and Descendants of Francis Epes I of Virginia, p. 126.

"Ibid., p. 934" — Dorman, John Frederick, Ancestors and Descendants of Francis Epes I of Virginia, p. 126.

"C. G. Chamberlayne, ed., The Vestry Book and Register of St. Peter’s Parish, New Kent and James City Counties, Virginia, 1684-1786 (Richmond, 1937), pp. 467-68" — Dorman, John Frederick, Ancestors and Descendants of Francis Epes I of Virginia, p. 126.

Ibid., pp. 563, 603" — Dorman, John Frederick, Ancestors and Descendants of Francis Epes I of Virginia, pp. 126-127.

Dorman, John Frederick, Ancestors and Descendants of Francis Epes I of Virginia, p. 205.

"Prince George Co. Minute Bk. 1737-40, p. 244. It seems suggestive that William, under the circumstances, might have chosen a relative — his mother’s brother-in-law." — Dorman, John Frederick, Ancestors and Descendants of Francis Epes I of Virginia, p. 211.

"The will of Littlebury mentioned sisters… Lucy Hardyman who on 17 Dec 1723 witnessed two deeds made by Francis(4) and Sarah Hardyman to Wm. Hardyman (Surry Co., Deeds, Wills 1715-30, pp. 495, 531) was undoubtedly one of these daughters" — Dorman, John Frederick, Ancestors and Descendants of Francis Epes I of Virginia, p. 127.